Thursday, March 19, 2020
Knowledge And Application Of Skills Social Work Essay Essays Knowledge And Application Of Skills Social Work Essay Essay Knowledge And Application Of Skills Social Work Essay Essay Crisis can be defined as an unbearable hard state of affairs or obstruction in life, when an person s get bying mechanisms fail, farther intensifying into emotional torment and disorganisation ; therefore, doing complete immobilisation in his/her day-to-day operation and necessitating for immediate crisis intercession or referral ( James, 2008 ) . Crisis can originate from nerve-racking or traumatic state of affairss due to one or more issues refering to serious medical unwellness, force, personal loss of loved one, sudden homelessness due to natural catastrophes, heavy fiscal debts, colza, or broken relationships. James ( 2008 ) characterizes crisis as danger and chance, complexness of symptoms, seeds of growing and alteration, speedy holes and, by catholicity and foible. An single faces psychological issues that can overmaster concluding when crisis takes the signifier of danger, such as self-destruction or homicide. However, crisis can be seen as an chance to redemption if the individual decides to obtain aid at the right clip. Second, crisis can besides happen if a individual reaches a breakage point due to an overpowering series of multifaceted jobs and state of affairss, originating from his/her environment, establishments, and/or relationships with people. Third, crisis can take to growing and alteration if the person makes a pick at the right clip. When anxiousness precedes crisis, it finally leads to an person s admittance that the state of affairs is beyond control and resignations to intervention that brings about a alteration. However, the pick to avoid decision-making can merely ta ke to lay waste toing effects. Fourthly, people tend to fall back to quick holes when faced with crisis ; but these holes are superficial and do non convey about lasting alteration. It merely aggravates the state of affairs. Last, one understands that life is complex, and crisis is inevitable ; and even the strongest individual is susceptible to force per unit area. However, the degrees of exposure and get bying mechanisms to cover with the same state of affairs may differ from one person to another. Barjon ( 2008 ) describes the BASICS theoretical account of crisis experience as behavioural, affectional, bodily, interpersonal, cognitive and religious severally. Behavioral refers to the precursors and effects of behaviour before and after a crisis, reflected in a client s reactions ( E.g. daze, calls of terror or hurt ) . Affective is the emotional strength of the client s behavior station crisis ( E.g. Anger, fright, anxiousness, depression, shame, etc. ) . Bodily refers to the client s physical symptoms eventful to the crisis, which may show itself as insomnia, concern, spasms, shortness of breath, sickness etc. Interpersonal is a province in which the client may either experience backdown or may be given to be highly vocal and expressive. Cognitive refers to the client s thought procedure station crisis, which may come up as denial, obfuscation, daze or freak out. Last, the religious facet is the client s trust on religion to cover with the crisis ( e.g. Questioning God s pro grams and the significances and enigmas of life itself ) . In order to make crisis intercession work, ( Gregoire A ; Jungers, 2007 ) the crisis worker should possess appraisal accomplishments to implement the six-step theoretical account of crisis intercession: 1 ) Specifying the job: Regardless of clip restraints, it is indispensable to infer a speedy effect of the state of affairs, to avoid any mistakes in misinterpreting the client. It is imperative to understand the client and his/her pursue the point of position. 2 ) Guaranting safety: Crisis workers should keep their safety by being qui vive of any at hand dangers that could impact the client or themselves ; nevertheless, they are non apt to endanger their lives in the procedure. 3 ) Supplying support: Similar to client-centered therapy, the crisis worker should show and pass on congruity, unconditioned positive attitude, and empathy, to do the client feel valued and accepted. 4 ) Analyzing options: In a province of crisis, the client can no longer treat ideas and do determinations as they feel there are no options left. Therefore, the worker should believe creatively, and supply the client with options and suggest get bying mechanisms as a manner to reimburse and self-actualize ( p. 560-561 ) . 5 ) Making programs: Crisis workers ( James, 2008 ) demand to be directing and prompt in inventing eventuality programs and supplying get bying schemes. They should promote the client to self-actualize inorder to recover some assurance and stableness, at least temporarily until aid arrives. Further support can be given by proposing referrals and giving directional stairss. 6 ) Obtaining committedness: The last measure should affect obtaining a steadfast committedness from the client, merely after holding reached a successful program of action. Committedness can be made symbolically, possibly by manner of a handshaking, written statement or a verbal promise. The expiration of the intercession should non take topographic point if the worker feels the client is still in the province of disequilibrium to do an honorable committedness. Conclusively, the first three stairss relate to good hearing accomplishments by go toing, demoing empathy, detecting, understanding, caring and regard ; whereas the last three stairss require moving and directing accomplishments. Another noteworthy facet to crisis intercession is the triage appraisal. Roberts ( 2005 ) asserts the importance of this appraisal as a tool to do simple, rapid and valid appraisals on the degrees of crisis and deadliness, sing the short span of clip. Triage assessment system enables the worker to roll up information if possible ( e.g. Person s demographics and background from a household member or relations ) ; gauge the individual s mobility, get bying mechanism and equilibrium ; find the badness of the state of affairs ; and, take required steps ( e.g. Supply referrals to reliable support groups, healers or short-run hospitalization ) to forestall the person from making any farther self-harm to himself/herself or to others. The worker can so agree whether to take a directive, non directive or collaborative attack. ( James, 2008 ) A good crisis worker will possess both theoretical and practical accomplishments in order to transport out crisis intercession work. Some of the salient features in an effectual worker include: 1 ) Life experiences: A worker who has more life experiences, accompanied with preparation, and have overcome their ain jobs successfully, may be able to manage clients in a better manner. There are exclusions to the instance: If the worker has non overcome his past jobs, there is an increasing inclination to reassign the negative thoughts or feelings on to the client. There are plentifulness of cases where workers decide to work with people who face the same job as they may hold undergone. 2 ) Poise: There is a high opportunity that the worker may meet unexpected or lurid state of affairss, where any show of agitation, can take the client to feed on the negativeness, and worsen the state of affairs. Therefore, keeping poise and control can promote the client to quiet down. 3 ) Creativity and flexibleness: Thinking out-of-the-box and being able to happen out different solutions and get bying mechanisms at short notice, can function as greater advantages in assisting the client reconstruct his equilibrium and concentrate on positiveness. 4 ) Quick mental physiological reactions: A crisis worker should hold speedy mental physiological reactions without which, it will be hard to manage a altering state of affairs. Considering, there is no excess clip to chew over and garner a batch of information, the worker should believe and run rapidly, being ready for any turn in events. 5 ) Energy and Resiliency: The worker has to be physically and psychologically strong to confront tough state of affairss, irrespective of the result of the intercession. Upon expiration of the intercession, crisis workers should follow resilience, and give no room for reconsideration, lest that affect their morale and consequence in a burn out. One can non compare a crisis worker s occupation to any other worker as non everyone can manage the occupation. Hoff A ; Hoff ( 2012 ) highlights the fact that the sheer work load and trouble of instances and the clip taken to do a discovery with a client can overpower the worker. Frustration is inevitable due to remote working with no way or audience on the scene of intercession. To cover with emphasis on a daily footing possibly normal, but the state of affairs could gyrate beyond control if the emphasis piles up and the worker does non vent it out. Harmonizing to Corey A ; Corey ( 2007 ) , crisis workers face intense emphasis when they mix their professional life and individual life. Crisis workers need to be resilient and emotionally strong, or they easy risk a burnout. Changeless contemplation on their ain experiences and personal transmutations which made them stronger persons is necessary to assist them step in efficaciously. The worker is fleeceable to experience responsibl e for any failed intercession. ( Hoff A ; Hoff, 2012 ) The employers can decide burnout issues by supplying the worker with compensatory vacations and periodic guidance. Introducing a problem-solving commission and revolving the workers to take part in other diverse plants can besides relieve some force per unit area. In decision, all the above kineticss confirm one fact: A crisis workers occupation of crisis intercession is demanding in all respects and it takes a strong personality and multiple accomplishments to cover with the sensitivenesss of a crisis state of affairs. Correct and timely intercession can debar farther catastrophe. The writer feels that crisis workers are like obscure heroes who do their occupation bravely and with doggedness, but disappear without acknowledgment on a occupation good done, merely to acquire ready for the following mission. Word count: 1600
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Tarchia - Facts and Figures Name: Tarchia (Chinese for brainy); pronounced TAR-chee-ah Habitat: Woodlands of Asia Historical Period: Late Cretaceous (75-65 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 25 feet long and two tons Diet: Plants Distinguishing Characteristics: Large, armored head with slightly larger than usual brain; quadrupedal posture; sharp spikes lining back About Tarchia Heres more evidence that paleontologists have a good sense of humor: Tarchia (Chinese for brainy) earned its name not because it was particularly smart, but because its brain was the tiniest smidgen bigger than those of comparable ankylosaurs, among the dumbest of all the dinosaurs of the Mesozoic Era. The trouble is, at 25 feet long and two tons Tarchia was also bigger than most other ankylosaurs, so its IQ was probably just a few points above that of a fire hydrant. (Adding insult to injury, it may well be the case that the type fossil of Tarchia actually belonged to a closely related genus of ankylosaur, Saichania, the name of which translates, equally ironically, as beautiful.) The ankylosaurs were among the last dinosaurs to succumb to the K/T Extinction 65 million years ago, and when you look at Tarchia, its easy to see why: this dinosaur was the equivalent of a living air-raid shelter, equipped with massive spikes on its back, a powerful head, and a broad, flat club on its tail that it could swing at approaching predators. The tyrannosaurs and raptors of its day probably left it in peace, unless they were feeling particularly hungry (or desperate) and ventured to flip it onto its enormous belly for a relatively easy kill.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Introduction to Political Science - Research Paper Example (Christoff, p. 10-12) For some years consecutively, President Bush constantly said that they will withdraw their army troops from Iraq as a strong and democratic government will be formed capable of taking care of the country. These benchmarks for taking back were hardly Ã¢â¬Ëstraw menÃ¢â¬â¢ more than realistic anticipations. An efficient united government was never created, Iraqi security troops have always been considered inadequate, despite of been prepared and equipped by the United States, now around 200,000 men proved their efficiency in current clashes against ShiÃ¢â¬â¢ite armies. That is why American employment of Iraq is being continued for almost five and a half years along with little remediation by society without having the political equilibrium resolved. (Christoff, p. 10-12; Gearan,p 1) There is a cause to trust, in information, that President G.W.Bush never had any intention of taking back forces and camps from Iraq. Lately in 2001, Bush as well as associates cl arified that the bigger locus of this War against Terror was in order to reorganize Moslem universe with lines sub serving our national concerns; the attack on Iraq was supposed to be the opening strike in that overextended plan. Precisely Iraq was attacked not because of its strong as well as threatening attitude, it was invaded for its weak nature and people were divided. The actual motive of the attack of Iraq resulted a permanent occupation for the compliant believer state and buildings of enduring army camps for the local projection of the power of American. The rationality of the neo-conservative regalistic plans include security of feeble pro-American administrating government, local protection troops perpetually abased on the control of America, and some degree of stable military profession. This discontinuity with realistic world may be the best representation of emphasis over the victory by President G.W.Bush and currently by presidential aspirant McCain. They demand of Ã¢ â¬ËVictoryÃ¢â¬â¢ over Iraq, but safely avoided defining their meaning by that word. Likely, Ã¢â¬ËsurrenderÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as withdrawal seemed synonymous which were utilized in suggesting that withdrawal as very embarrassing.( Cordesman et al, 5-7) While the current presidential campaign was going on, Mr. Obama insisted to take back most American forces from the land of Iraq within sixteen months, though a small amount of army will stay there. The left force would aim al-Qaeda to secure our diplomats as well as other personnel, prepare Iraqi troops, and attend other missions. The missions might be relative to his point that the American forces would be needed to help reconstruction of the nation and places for the castaways, events that need a year to finish. (Wehrey, et al, 23-35; Middle East policy council (US) p 65-70) The left troop would not, nevertheless, become engaged in ethnic clash. The phase of months was selected as it seemed Mr. Obama apparently believing that th e recent Iraqi government is not strong enough, stabilized, or legitimate in functioning freely without United States army assistance. The elections in Iraq will occur on 31st of January and in the ending 2009 which may give strength to the government, with participation of Sunnis, though it is not guaranteed. The absolute taking back of the United States army from Iraq supposed to have a winning effect. The United States would not be accused with an expense of
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Memo - Essay Example We have taken this step to increase employee specialization in a particular field and to increase productivity. Employees will even be able to connect with people from different backgrounds and cultures; this will help in developing employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ interpersonal skills. Communication Language Ã¢â¬â we have decided to make English as our official language as English language is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third most extensively vocal language. In order to compete globally we need to understand people all over the world and English is the most extensively spoken language. This measure will even help employees from different countries interact with each other and work in teams. SAP took this step to eliminate language barriers and the company will be able to understand the needs of our consumers and work to benefit the consumers. Managers Ã¢â¬â SAP has hired from different nations as these managers will us develop software according to the needs of the customers. These managers will identify software needs of different customers located in different regions and help us in creating customer friendly software. I am grateful to new and old employees for the commitment and hard work they have shown over the years. We want all our employees to support us in attaining our objective of competing globally. We want our employees to give inputs regarding the training required to implement the change and the difficulties they are facing due to these changes. SAP wants all the employees to meet us in a conference scheduled for 4 April 2010 at 14:00 hours in the conference room number 3. SAP and employees will discuss and analyze the views of our employees in this
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Causes of the Decline in Voter Turnout Ã¢â¬Å"What explains the decline in voter turnout in most democracies in the last few decades? In your answer, consider one or two explanations that you consider most important and empirical evidence supporting or rejecting themÃ¢â¬ . According to Dalton (1988) Ã¢â¬Å"citizen involvement in the political process is essential for democracy to be viable and meaningfulÃ¢â¬ . They suggest that Ã¢â¬Å"limited political involvement is a sign of weakness because it is only through dialogue and participation that societal goals are defined and achieved in a democracy. Voting, though it requires little initiative and cooperation with others, is the most visible and widespread form of citizen involvementÃ¢â¬ . Over the past three decades, voter turnout in the UK and other democratic countries has decreased significantly, I will discuss what I consider to be two of the most important explanations for the decline in voter turnout across various democratic countries. These being political disengagement and dissatisfaction and the reduction in the value of voting. I have chosen these due to the fact there is significant empirical evidence supporting both explanations, as will be explored below. The first part of this ess ay will explain some statistics regarding the levels of voter turnout, following this, I will discuss the idea that political disengagement and dissatisfaction could be considered one of the most significant contributors to the decline in voter turnout and how the depleting value of the vote can cause people to refrain from voting altogether. A democratic country is defined as being a country in which Ã¢â¬Å"all eligible citizens have the right to participate in the political system, either directly or indirectly when it comes to making the decisions that will affect themÃ¢â¬ . The decline in voter turnout throughout democratic countries in the last few decades is fast becoming a problem due to the fact democracy depends on voter participation. The decline in voter turnout can be noted in the UK where voter turnout reduced from 75.3% in 1987 to 68.7% in 2017, suffering substantial dips throughout this period, as was found in 2001 in which voter turnout dropped to 59.4%. Figure 1. A line graph showing the decline in general election turnout since 1945. Taken from: Ukpolitical.info. Voter turnout at UK general elections 1945 Ã¢â¬â 2017 | UK Political Info. [online] Available at: http://www.ukpolitical.info/Turnout45.htm. The same thing can be seen in other democratic countries. For example, voter turnout in the US during Mid-Term Elections has decreased from 60.89% of registered voters voting and 41.07% of voting age voters voting in 1986 to 54.16% of registered voters voting and 39.51% of voting age voters voting in 2014. The same cannot be said for Presidential elections, where we see an increase from 76.98%/56.28% voting in 1988 and 78.76%/60.52% voting in 2016. However, the most recent statistics do show a decline from 2004 onwards. One possible explanation for this could be the voters feel as though a Presidential election is more important, it gains more media coverage and affects the whole country. Therefore, it would be useful to consider some of the reasons for this selective decline in voter turnout. Figure 2: Levels of voter turnout in US midterm elections from 1982 to 2014. Taken from: Sos.wa.gov. [online] Available at: https://www.sos.wa.gov/elections/voter-participation.aspx Figure 3: Levels of voter turnout in US presidential elections from 1980 to 2016. Taken from: Sos.wa.gov. [online] Available at: https://www.sos.wa.gov/elections/voter-participation.aspx. The first of my proposed explanations for the decline in voter turnout is the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s political disengagement and dissatisfaction. Before I continue, it is important to distinguish between voter apathy and voter alienation in order to determine whether there is a decline in voter turnout due to an increased laziness throughout the public or due to the public feeling as though they can no longer relate to their politicians, my first point of discussion focusses on the latter. Crewe et al (1992) suggested that apathy indicates a lack personal responsibility, a Ã¢â¬Å"passivity, and indifference for political affairs. It denotes the absence of a feeling of personal obligation to participate. However, voter alienation implies an active rejection of the political systemÃ¢â¬ . The alienation the public are feeling when it comes to politics was found by Dr. Ruth Fox to stem from the fact that the parties we have to choose from are Ã¢â¬Å"all the same, the politicians are all the same, they are not like usÃ¢â¬ . This could mean that the public can no longer identify with the candidates they are voting for. Politicians have become so detached from the average person, that the public cannot find any logical reason to want to vote them into power and consequently, do not vote at all. This could be considered one of the most crucial factors to contribute to a declining voter turnout because the aim of an elected Government is to represent the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s views in Parliament to ensure that the decisions made, and laws created, benefit the country in the most inclusive way possible. Therefore, when the public feel as though they are not being accurately represented in Parliament they can feel alienated which in turn, promotes disinterest and a feeling of disengagement among the public with regard to politics. The British Academy stated that Ã¢â¬Å"British society has become, for the most part, disengaged with politicsÃ¢â¬ ¦In the case of British voters, it is important to understand the scale and depth of their disenchantmentÃ¢â¬ . This can be considered important because if we can engage the public in politics through their MPs and other representatives, this would subsequently improve voter turnout. The second of my proposed explanations for declining levels of voter turnout is the idea that the public no longer places any value in voting, believing that their votes will not make a difference. The House of Commons Political and Constitutional Committee found this especially Ã¢â¬Å"when the member of the public lived in an area in which there was a safe seat, that is, where the party of the elected representative was unlikely to changeÃ¢â¬ . The value of voting can be considered an important explanation for the decline in voter turnout because if the public does not feel as if their vote will make a difference, or produce the outcome they prefer, they will be less inclined to even try. It was suggested by Ioannis Kolovos and Phil Harris that voters Ã¢â¬Å"weigh up the costs and benefits of their actions, meaning that the public will turn up to vote when they consider that the benefits of such an action outweigh the costsÃ¢â¬ . An example of how the public have been made to feel disengaged with politics can be seen in the last election in which the Green Party and UKIP had significant support, resulting in a considerable number of votes. Under a different political system, these parties would have won 85 seats. Unfortunately, for the people that voted for them, the Green Party and UKIP only gained 1 seat each. Therefore, it appears that when people see that a significant percentage of the electorate are completely ignored due to the current political system, they give up on voting entirely due to the fact they think that their votes will not make a difference leading them to believe that the act of voting had little benefits. This could explain the decline in voter turnout in most democracies in the last few decades. There are many factors that can explain the decline in voter turnout in most democracies over the last few decades. In this essay, I have focused on and provided empirical evidence for what I believe to be two of the most important; political disengagement and dissatisfaction and the reduction in the value of voting. The need for politics to be more inclusive and for the public to feel as though they can relate to their representatives would considerably help the rates of voter turnout as they would feel as though their vote means something and would contribute to an outcome that would benefit themselves as well as others. They would also feel more involved in the political process which, in turn would allow them to restore the value of their vote because as the public begins to feel more engaged and satisfied with their representative in Parliament, they would place a value on their vote as they would know that it could potentially make a difference. REFERENCES: 1) Anon, (2018). [online] Available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228215776_What_Affects_Voter_Turnout [Accessed 9 Jan. 2018]. 2) Crewe, I 1992, Changing votes and unchanging voters, Electoral Studies, 11, 4, p. 335-345, ScopusÃ ®, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 January 2018 3) Dalton, Russell J., Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, 5th edition (Washington DC: CQ Press, 2008), p. 37. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Ã¢â¬Å"Voter Turnout DatabaseÃ¢â¬ , International IDEA website. 4) E-International Relations. (2018). Why is Turnout at Elections Declining Across the Democratic World? [online] Available at http://www.e-ir.info/2012/09/27/why-is-turnout-at-elections-declining-across-the-democratic-world/ [Accessed 9 Jan. 2018]. 5) Hooghe, M, & Kern, A. 2017, The tipping point between stability and decline: Trends in voter turnout, 1950-1980-2012, European Political Science, 16, 4, p. 535-552, ScopusÃ ®, EBSCOhost, viewed 14 December 2017. 6) Kolovos, I. and Harris, P. (n.d.). Voter Apathy in British Elections: Causes and Remedies. pp.2-3. 7) Kolovos, I. and Harris, P. (n.d.). Voter Apathy in British Elections: Causes and Remedies. Pp.3. 8) Lop.parl.ca. (2018). Democracy Defined | Our Country, Our Parliament. [online] Available at: https://lop.parl.ca/About/Parliament/Education/ourcountryourparliament/html_booklet/democracy-defined-e.html [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018]. 9) Publications.parliament.uk. (2014). [online] Available at: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmselect/cmpolcon/232/232.pdf [Accessed 11 Jan. 2018]. 10) Sos.wa.gov. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.sos.wa.gov/elections/voter-participation.aspx [Accessed 11 Jan. 2018]. 11) Southwell, PL 2008, THE EFFECT OF POLITICAL ALIENATION ON VOTER TURNOUT, 1964-2000, Journal Of Political & Military Sociology, 36, 1, pp. 131-145, SocINDEX with Full Text, EBSCOhost, viewed 11 January 2018. (http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=2&sid=13872f22-38b9-460a-bd0c-4953cc4c2455%40pdc-v-sessmgr01) 12) Stuart, C. (2016). Why is the turnout for UK elections so low?. [online] Quora. Available at: https://www.quora.com/Why-is-the-turnout-for-UK-elections-so-low [Accessed 10 Jan. 2018]. 13) Ukpolitical.info. (2018). Voter turnout at UK general elections 1945 Ã¢â¬â 2017 | UK Political Info. [online] Available at: http://www.ukpolitical.info/Turnout45.htm [Accessed 11 Jan. 2018]. ONLINE SOURCES Reasons for low voter engagement: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmselect/cmpolcon/232/23205.htm Written evidence submitted by Tim Knight (VUK 69) http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/political-and-constitutional-reform-committee/voter-engagement-in-the-uk/written/8287.html Written evidence submitted by 38 Degrees (VUK 50) http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/political-and-constitutional-reform-committee/voter-engagement-in-the-uk/written/7510.html Written evidence submitted by Ian Sheppard (VUK 51) http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/political-and-constitutional-reform-committee/voter-engagement-in-the-uk/written/7575.html Written evidence submitted by Michael Yates (VUK 53): Ã¢â¬Å"Why does the UK experience low voter engagementÃ¢â¬ http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/political-and-constitutional-reform-committee/voter-engagement-in-the-uk/written/7880.html Written evidence submitted by David H Smith (VUK 59): Reasons for and impact of low voter engagement. http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/political-and-constitutional-reform-committee/voter-engagement-in-the-uk/written/7970.html  Voter Apathy in British elections: Causes and Remedies, pg2-3  Democracy Defined | Our Country, Our Parliament.  House of Commons Political and Constitutional Committee: Voter engagement in the UK (2014-15) S3, Pg. 7  Written evidence from 38 Degrees [VUK 50], Ian Sheppard [VUK 51], Michael Yates [VUK 53], David H Smith [VUK 59], Tim Knight [VUK 69],  Voter apathy in British elections: Causes and Remedies
Friday, January 17, 2020
ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s story of a creature created by Victor Frankenstein has striking similarities to MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËParadise LostÃ¢â¬â¢ from the outset, as the second letter in the novel that documents FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s misfortune, is sent from Ã¢â¬ËArchangelÃ¢â¬â¢. Satan was an archangel before he was banished from heaven for challenging God, and we know that he was supposedly perfect. Frankenstein sought to make Ã¢â¬Ëa human being in perfectionÃ¢â¬â¢, although both the creature and Satan fell from grace at the hand of their creators. The opening line of Paradise Lost underpins the correlation between the tales; Ã¢â¬ËParadise LostÃ¢â¬â¢ opens with the lines, Ã¢â¬ËOf ManÃ¢â¬â¢s first disobedience, and the fruit, Of that forbidden tree,Ã¢â¬â¢ this is referring to Adam who took forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge and was therefore exiled by God. This story of Eden and mans downfall has obviously influenced Shelley as FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of Ã¢â¬Ënature to her hiding placesÃ¢â¬â¢ is what led to the demise of himself and his family. MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Satan challenges God; Adam and Eve are tempted by Satan to eat the forbidden fruit and this echoes in ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel and MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, as he tells us that Ã¢â¬Ëheaven hides nothing from thy view. Ã¢â¬Ë Yet both Satan and Frankenstein want more than nature has to offer, and the irony in the events leading up to the monsters creation are highlighted, by ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of dark and gothic descriptions of foraging in Ã¢â¬Ëvaults and charnel-houses,Ã¢â¬â¢ and how Ã¢â¬Ëthe worm inherited the wonders of the eye and brain.. Ã¢â¬Ë This dark depiction echoes the fate of Frankenstein, the monster and MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Satan, as they all endure an experience of Hell; FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s personal hell was of Ã¢â¬Ëof intense tortures such as no language can describe,Ã¢â¬â¢ and his endurance of a Ã¢â¬Ëdeep, dark, death like solitude, ironically echoes his creationÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of loneliness and despair. The monster however, Ã¢â¬Ëconsidered Satan as the fitter emblemÃ¢â¬â¢ of his condition and continued sufferings, but his hell was also a personal one, to be lived out on earth, and unfortunately alone. Satan, at least, had Ã¢â¬Ëhis host of rebel angelsÃ¢â¬â¢ and had experience of a Ã¢â¬ËfatherÃ¢â¬â¢ and being loved, his demise was through choice, as was FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s. It is Satan and the monster who initially invoke the readers compassion, as the monster seems of a benevolent nature as he watched the Ã¢â¬ËbelovedÃ¢â¬â¢ De Lacy family and took Ã¢â¬ËpleasureÃ¢â¬â¢ in aiding their labours. He also shows altruistic behaviour in saving a drowning girl, and lighting a fire to warm his creator, making him possibly more sympathetic than Frankenstein, who forgot his family in his aspirations to Ã¢â¬Ëbecome greater than his nature will allow. Ã¢â¬Ë The monster states, after reading Paradise Lost and other literature he has found after eating the metaphorical apple, that Ã¢â¬Ësorrow only increased with knowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢, as he became aware from the De LaceyÃ¢â¬â¢s, of such things as love and acceptance that he came to long for. His good intent could also be interpreted on his hearing Saphie play music that he found Ã¢â¬Ëso entrancingly beautiful that they at once drew tears of sorrow and of delight from my eyes. Ã¢â¬Ë SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s ruin also came from his pursuit of knowledge, leading both Ã¢â¬ËmenÃ¢â¬â¢ to their exile from the people they sought acceptance from. According to Stephen Boyd*, ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s husband believed that Ã¢â¬Ëmen are not inherently corrupt, and that they are perfectible,Ã¢â¬â¢ adding to the influence of Frankenstein being to blame for the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings of Ã¢â¬Ëvengeance to all mankind,Ã¢â¬â¢ and FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s own corruption when trying to discover Ã¢â¬Ëthe elixir of life. Ã¢â¬Ë Shelley portrays the monster in child-like ways throughout the novel, as he learns empirically; Ã¢â¬Ëit was a long time before I was able to distinguish between the operations of my various senses,Ã¢â¬â¢ and he burns himself with fire as a child with no awareness would. This allows the reader to feel some empathy towards this Ã¢â¬Ëwretched creatureÃ¢â¬â¢, as we imagine an abandoned child, but also reinforces her exploration of human nature as potentially good. Frankenstein and the creature both state they were Ã¢â¬Ëformed for peaceful happinessÃ¢â¬â¢, like MiltonÃ¢â¬â¢s Adam, making them perfect antiheroes. It could be argued that the monsterÃ¢â¬â¢s rejection is what made him commit such heinous crimes against FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s loved ones, as the rejection he continually faced made him Ã¢â¬ËwretchedÃ¢â¬â¢. We could see Shelley taking the stance that man made a monster, and man also made him monstrous. As the monster lives in a hut, we are reminded that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t only live outside physically, but emotionally as he is a mere voyeur of family life while watching the De Lacys, and this social exclusion is to blame for his murderous behaviour, again relating to Satan who was excluded my his creator. We could again relate this to Satan who is looking for earth and is also Ã¢â¬Ëracked with deep despair,Ã¢â¬â¢ as are ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s characters. Frankenstein also resembles God, as he created his own version of Adam, and the monster that he constantly refers to as Ã¢â¬ËfiendÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdevilÃ¢â¬â¢ reminds him; Ã¢â¬ËYou, my creator, abhor me..Ã¢â¬â¢ his plea resounds through the humanity of every reader who has ever felt alone or incomplete, but these feelings however are to be changed as the monster commits heinous crimes against the humanity he once Ã¢â¬Ëlonged for,Ã¢â¬â¢ and on his final rejection he cries; Ã¢â¬Ëoh, earthÃ¢â¬ ¦ the mildness of my nature had fled, and all within me was turned to bitterness and gall. Ã¢â¬Ë This is when the role of God is transferred from Frankenstein and to the monster who will now decide his fate.